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A glossary of technical terms utilised in explosive ordnance risk mitigation, mine action and improvised explosive device disposal.

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AED (Artificial External Defibrillators): are portable medical devices that deliver an electric shock to the heart in case of cardiac arrest.

AGC (Advanced Guidance Systems): are computer-based systems that provide advanced guidance and control for various applications, including aerospace, military, and industrial automation.

AHD (Anti-Handling Device): is a device intended to prevent tampering or unintentional disturbance of mines or explosive remnants of war (ERW) by making them dangerous to handle, move or approach.

ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable): a risk management principle that aims to minimise risks and hazards to the lowest practical level.

AL (Access Lane): constructed to permit movement of personnel, vehicles or equipment to and from operational areas within a mine/ERW affected area.

ALS (Advanced Life Support): a set of medical procedures and interventions that are used to treat patients with life-threatening conditions. ALS typically involves the use of advanced medical equipment and medications.

AOO (Area of Operations): the geographic area in which mine action or unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance activities are conducted.

AP (Anti Personnel): devices or weapons designed to harm or kill individuals, rather than structures or vehicles.

APM (Anti-Personnel Mines): explosive devices designed to injure, maim, or kill individuals who come into contact with them.

APMBC (Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention): also known as the Ottawa Treaty, this is an international agreement aimed at prohibiting the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of anti-personnel mines, as well as ensuring their clearance and destruction.

AV (Anti Vehicle): devices or weapons designed to damage or destroy vehicles, rather than individuals.

AXO (Abandoned Explosive Ordnance): explosive devices, such as bombs or landmines, which have been left behind or discarded and are no longer under the control of the party that originally placed them.


B6/B7 (Armoured Vehicle): a highly armoured vehicle that has been designed to resist various types of attacks, such as gunfire and explosions.

BA (Briefing Area): an area designated for briefing personnel on the risks and hazards associated with mine/ERW contamination and clearance activities, as well as the safety measures and procedures that need to be followed.

BAC (Battle Area Clearance): the process of clearing explosive hazards and unexploded ordnance from areas where military operations have taken place. This process is critical for restoring safety and security to the affected areas and facilitating the return of civilians to their homes and communities.

BL (Boundary Lane): a lane marking the outer boundary of a mined area, which may be marked by signs or other physical means to indicate the presence of mines or explosive remnants of war (ERW) beyond that point.

BLS (Basic Life Support): the immediate care provided to sustain life and prevent further injury or deterioration of a patient's condition - for example, CPR.


CA (Cancelled Area): a demarcated region that has been assessed through a non-technical survey of a SHA/CHA location and found to be devoid of any indication of explosive ordnance contamination.

CA (Cleared Area): a designated zone that has been rendered safe by eliminating all identified hazards of explosive ordnance (EO) to a specified extent.

CAR (Central African Republic): a landlocked country located in Central Africa, bordered by Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and Cameroon.

CASEVAC (Casualty Evacuation): the process of transporting injured or sick individuals from a combat zone or other dangerous area to a medical facility for further treatment. 

CCM (Convention on Cluster Munitions): an international treaty that prohibits the use, production, transfer, and stockpiling of cluster munitions.

CHA (Confirmed Hazardous Area): an area that has been identified and verified to contain explosive hazards, such as landmines or UXO.

C-IED (Counter IED): the measures and techniques employed to prevent, detect, and neutralise improvised explosive devices, which are homemade explosive weapons

CL (Community Liaison): a role that serves as a link between SafeLane Global and affected communities, providing information, feedback, and guidance to enhance understanding and promote cooperation in explosive ordnance clearance activities.

CM (Cluster Munitions): weapons that scatter small explosive devices, called submunitions or bomblets, across a large geographical area.

CMCA (Cluster Munition Contaminated Area): a region that is acknowledged or presumed to harbour cluster munitions.

CMD (Conventional Munitions Disposal): the process of safely removing and disposing of explosive weapons that have become surplus, obsolete, or unusable.

CWA (CEN Workshop Agreement): a consensus-based document that provides a framework for the development of European Standards, by enabling stakeholders to collaborate and establish common technical specifications.

CWA (Chemical Warfare Agents): toxic substances, such as nerve agents and blister agents, which are designed to cause harm to humans, animals, or plants, and are typically used in warfare or terrorism.


DARP (Demining Accident Response Plan): a written strategy established for each demining worksite that outlines the steps to be taken in transporting casualties from a demining accident scene to an appropriate medical facility for treatment or surgical care.

DGPS (Differential Global Positioning Systems): a satellite navigation technology that provides improved positioning accuracy by using a network of reference stations to correct errors caused by atmospheric and other factors.

DHA (Defined Hazardous Area): refers to a specific geographic location or area where there is evidence of the presence of landmines, unexploded ordnance (UXO), or other explosive remnants of war (ERW) that pose a threat to the safety and security of individuals and communities. 

DIS (Destroy In-Situ): refers to the act of demolishing an explosive device or ordnance without moving it from its original location, often accomplished by detonating an explosive charge placed adjacent to the item.

DNT (Dinitrotolulene): a by-product of TNT production and a decomposition product of TNT. It is typically found in different quantities in any explosive device that contains TNT.

DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo): a large and diverse country located in Central Africa, known for its rich natural resources, including minerals like cobalt and copper, as well as its unique and abundant wildlife, including gorillas and elephants.

DW (Demining Worksite): any location where demining operations, such as surveying, clearance, and explosive ordnance Disposal (EOD), are being conducted.


ECM (Electronic Countermeasures): techniques used to disrupt or disable electronic signals, such as those used to trigger improvised explosive devices (IEDs)

ECP (Entry Control Point): a military term used to describe a designated location or checkpoint where personnel, vehicles, and materials are screened and authorised before entering a secured area.

EDD (Explosive Detection Dogs): highly trained canines that are capable of detecting the presence of explosive materials,  including those used in IEDs, UXO, and landmines. 

EHAT (Explosive Hazard Awareness Training): a type of training designed for all ranks of all arms of service to enable personnel to safely operate in an IED threat environment, apply best practice, and reduce casualties.

EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment): a comprehensive procedure that involves the identification, forecasting, assessment, and reduction of the physical, societal, and other significant environmental consequences of mine action operations before decisions are made or agreements are established.

EO (Explosive Ordnance): any explosive device or material, including bombs, grenades, landmines, rockets, and other munitions.

EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal): the process of identifying, rendering safe, and disposing of explosive devices such as IEDs, landmines, and UXO.

EORE (Explosive Ordnance Risk Education): the process of educating individuals and communities about the risks associated with explosive ordnance, with the aim to increase awareness and promote safe behaviours that reduce the risk of injury/death from EO. This may include training on how to recognise and avoid hazardous areas, how to report suspected explosive devices, and how to respond in case of an accident or emergency.

ERW (Explosive Remnants of War): explosive devices that remain after a conflict, such as landmines, unexploded ordnance, and abandoned explosive ordnance.

ES (Explosive Submunition): a type of munition that is released or dispersed by a cluster bomb and is intended to detonate an explosive charge before, during, or after impact to accomplish its purpose.


FCM (Failed Cluster Munition): a type of cluster bomb that has been launched, dropped, fired, projected, or otherwise delivered, but did not release or disperse its explosive submunitions as intended.

FFE (Free from Explosives): an area that has been confirmed as clear of all explosive hazards.


GMAA (General Mine Action Assessment): the process of evaluating the scope and extent of mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination within a given area.

GMAP (Global Mine Action Programme): a collaborative international effort to address the threat posed by landmines and ERW. GMAP aims to support affected countries in implementing comprehensive mine action programs, including the clearance of contaminated areas, risk education, victim assistance, and advocacy for the universalisation of international conventions related to mine action.

GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar): a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface, providing non-destructive and high-resolution data for various applications such as UXO detection.

GPS (Global Positioning Satellite): a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information anywhere on Earth.


HM (Hazard Markers): objects, distinct from hazard signs, which are utilised to mark the boundaries of a mine and explosive remnants of war hazard areas.

HMA (Humanitarian Mine Action): a set of activities aimed at reducing the impact of landmines, explosive remnants of war (ERW), and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on people and communities affected by explosive ordnance. It includes activities such as clearance, risk education, and victim assistance.

HME (Home Made Explosives): any explosive materials produced by combining various readily available components commonly found in commercial or consumer products.


IA (lachrymatory Ammunition): a type of ammunition that contains chemical compounds formulated to temporarily incapacitate targets by inducing eye irritation and inflammation.

IATG (International Ammunition Technical Guidelines):  a set of internationally recognised technical guidelines and best practices for the safe and secure management of ammunition stockpiles. The IATG were developed by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS).

IED (Improvised Explosive Device): an explosive device that is constructed and deployed in an improvised manner, often using locally available materials, for the purpose of causing damage, destruction, injury, or death. IEDs can take many forms and are often detonated remotely or by a timer/trigger mechanism. 

IEDD (IED Disposal): the process of safely and effectively neutralising or disposing of improvised explosive devices. 

IDI (Internally Displaced Individuals): people who have been forced to flee their homes / communities due to armed conflict, violence, natural disasters, or human rights violations, but who have not crossed an international border to seek safety.

IED-TM (IED Threat Mitigation): the set of measures and actions taken to reduce the risk and impact of IEDs, including detection, identification, and disposal in order to protect people and infrastructure from harm.

IM (Intrusive Machine): a type of machine that is specifically designed to operate within a hazardous area, whereas a non-intrusive machine is intended to function from a known safe or cleared location, with its mechanical tool operating in the hazardous area.

IMAS (International Mine Action Standards): internationally recognised guidelines and best practices that provide a framework for safe, effective, and efficient mine action operations, developed by the UNMAS.

IMSMA (Information Management System for Mine Action): a software application developed by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to support the collection, management, and analysis of information related to mine action operations on a centralised database.

ISO (International Organisation for Standardization): an independent, NGO that develops and publishes international standards for various industries and sectors, covering a wide range of topics, including quality management, environmental management, information security, and social responsibility.

ISWAP (Islamic State West African Province): a jihadist militant organisation that operates in West Africa, primarily in Nigeria.


JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition): a guidance kit designed to convert unguided bombs into precision-guided munitions, allowing them to accurately strike ground targets with minimal collateral damage. JDAM uses GPS technology to provide accurate targeting and can be used in all weather conditions.


KFOR (Kosovo Force) - a NATO-led peacekeeping mission that maintains security and promotes stability in Kosovo with military, police, and civilian personnel from various countries.

KRG (Kurdistan Regional Government): the official executive body of Kurdistan, an autonomous region in northern Iraq, with its own government and military forces, and a significant Kurdish population.


LLMD (Large Loop Metal Detectors): specialised metal detection tools that use a large, circular coil to detect metallic objects buried underground. They are often used for landmine detection.


MAC (Mine Action Centre): an organisation that oversees and coordinates efforts to mitigate the impact of landmines and explosive remnants of war. They may be government-run or operated by non-governmental organisations.

MACC (Mine Action Coordination Centre): a specialised organisation that coordinates and manages all aspects of mine action activities in a particular geographic area or country.

MAT (Mine Action Teams): groups of trained professionals who work together to remove landmines, explosive remnants of war, and other explosive hazards from an affected area. 

MDD (Mine Detection Dogs): highly trained canines that can detect the presence of explosive materials via their scent.

MEDEVAC (Medical Evacuation): the process of moving and transporting injured or ill individuals, with the assistance of a professional medical team, from a hazardous area to a medical facility for treatment.

MOU (Memorandum of Understanding): a formal document that outlines a bilateral or multilateral agreement between two or more parties, highlighting the terms and conditions of their understanding and cooperation.

MRE (Mine Risk Education): the process of providing education and awareness to individuals and communities living in areas affected by landmines, with the aim of reducing the risk of injury and death from these hazards.

MSS (Medical Support Staff): individuals who are specifically designated, trained, and equipped to offer initial aid and additional medical assistance to demining personnel who sustain injuries as a result of an accident.

MTA (Marauding Terror Attack): are high-speed and aggressive assaults where perpetrators roam through a targeted area with the intention of causing mass casualties. The majority of fatalities typically occur during the initial stages of the attack, as law enforcement may not be able to intervene in time to prevent significant harm.

MTT (Multi Task Teams): a group of highly trained personnel who are capable of carrying out a range of tasks such as explosive ordnance disposal, battle area clearance, and risk education, among other things.


NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation): a political and military alliance of 30 countries from Europe and North America, committed to the collective defence of its members.

NDD (Narcotic Detection Dogs): specially trained canines that can detect the presence of narcotics. These dogs are trained to use their keen sense of smell to identify the odour of illegal substances and alert their handlers to their location.

NGO (Non-governmental Organisation): non-profit, independent groups or associations that works towards a particular social, environmental, or humanitarian cause. 

NMAA (National Mine Action Authority): see MAC.

NTS (Non-Technical Survey): a systematic, evidence-based and participatory approach to identify the scope, scale, and impact of explosive hazards, as well as the needs of communities affected by them. It involves gathering information from various sources, including affected communities.

NTSGs (National Technical Standards and Guidelines): documents developed and issued by national mine action authorities that provide guidance and direction for the implementation of mine action activities in a specific country or region.

PBIED (Person Borne IED): explosive devices that are carried by individuals or concealed in clothing or belongings. 


OA (Operational Analysis): a specialised area of research that utilises quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques to aid management decisions pertaining to operations, incorporating scientific methods and data analysis.

OTJ (On the Job Training): a learning method that involves acquiring knowledge, skills, and competencies while performing work-related tasks and responsibilities, under the supervision and guidance of experienced, highly qualified trainers.


PCA (Post Clearance Assessment): the process of conducting surveys to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of mine action planning, prioritisation, and implementation procedures, with the objective of improving the effectiveness and productivity of mine action.

POC (Point of Contact): an individual or entity responsible for communicating and coordinating with other entities involved in mine action activities.

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment): specialised clothing and equipment worn by personnel to protect against injury or death from explosive hazards.


QA (Quality Assurance): the process of implementing and maintaining a system of procedures and standards to ensure that a product/service consistently meets or exceeds expectations.

QC (Quality Control): the process of verifying that a product/service meets the established quality standards and requirements.

QM (Quality Management): the process of ensuring that operations meet or exceed the established standards and requirements for safety, effectiveness, and efficiency.


RCIED (Remote Controlled Improvised Explosive Device): an explosive device that is remotely triggered by an operator using a control device, such as a radio transmitter, to initiate an explosion from a safe distance.

RDX (1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane): a type of military explosive commonly found in various types of munitions. It is considered less sensitive and more chemically stable than TNT, although it is never handled in its pure and dry form due to the risk of accidental detonation. Instead, RDX is typically used as a component in explosive mixtures, particularly plastic explosives.

RSP (Render Safe Procedure): the process of safely neutralising or removing explosive hazards.

RTK (Real-Time Kinematic): a satellite navigation technique that provides highly accurate real-time positioning data for various applications, including surveying, mapping, and agriculture.


SDM (Self-Destruct Mechanism): an additional mechanism built into explosive ordnance that ensures its destruction beyond the primary initiating mechanism. 

SF (Secondary Fragmentation): the shrapnel or debris generated as a result of the explosion of an explosive device, which was not part of the original explosive ordnance.

SHA (Suspected Hazardous Area): a location where the presence of explosive hazards, such as landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO), is suspected but not confirmed.

SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures): documented, step-by-step instructions that outline the specific procedures and processes required to carry out a particular task, designed to for consistency, quality, and safety in operations.

SOR (Statement of Requirement): a document that details a business problem/opportunity for an authority, and seeks funding/approval to pursue said opportunity.

SOW (Statement of Work): a document that details project requirements including the scope of work, deliverables, timelines, locations, et cetera.

STANAG (NATO Standardisation Agreements): a set of NATO agreements that establish uniform procedures and requirements for member nations to follow.

SVIED (Suicide Vest Improvised Explosive Device): explosive devices that are worn by an individual and are triggered by the person themselves, typically through the use of a switch/button, causing a deadly explosion. SVIEDs are commonly used in suicide bombings and terrorist attacks.

SVBIED (Suicide Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device): explosive devices that are concealed within a vehicle and driven by a suicide attacker to a target location.


TNA (Training Needs Analysis): the systematic process of assessing and identifying the gaps between the current knowledge, skills, and competencies of an individual / team and the desired level of proficiency required.

TNT (2, 4, 6 Trinitrotoluene): a military explosive that is commonly utilised due to its stability and insensitivity to various forms of energy such as impact, friction, shock, and electrostatic forces. It is a prevalent type of explosive used in mines and munitions.

TSG (Technical Standards and Guidelines): protocols, procedures, and best practices that are established and followed to ensure safe and effective operations.

TTP (Tactics, Techniques, Procedures): a concept is used to identify and analyse the patterns of behaviour of terrorist organisations/activities.


UNDP (United Nations Development Programme): the is UN's global development network. It provides expert advice, training, and support to countries and communities, promoting sustainable development, reduced poverty, and improved quality of life for all.

UNMAS (United Nations Mine Action Service): part of the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations, focused on eliminating/clearing the risk of mines, explosive remnants of war, and improvised explosive devices.

UNOPS (United Nations Office for Project Services): this agency of the United Nations is responsible for infrastructure, procurement, and project management services.

UPDF (Uganda Peoples' Defence Force): the armed forces of Uganda, responsible for protecting the country's sovereignty and territorial integrity.

UXO (Unexploded Ordnance): items of explosive ordnance, such as ammunition, bombs, grenades, et cetera., that failed to detonate correctly upon use, but are still at risk of exploding.


VA (Vulnerable Area): a geographic location that is assessed to be at an increased risk of explosive ordnance or improvised explosive device (IED) contamination.

VBIED (Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Device): explosive devices are hidden within vehicles, and are usually driven to a target location before being detonated. IEDs placed on the bottom of a vehicle are known as Under Vehicle Improvised Explosive Devices (UVIEDs).

VOIED (Victim Operated Improvised Explosive Device): also known as 'booby traps', these devices detonate when the victim/target makes physical contact with it. Examples include pressure plates and trip wires.

VP (Vulnerable Point): a location, piece of infrastructure, equipment, or vehicle that is assessed to be susceptible to explosive ordnance or improvised explosive device (IED) attacks, due to its strategic, symbolic, or high-value nature.


WROV (Work Class Remote Operated Vehicles): large, specialised underwater robots designed to perform complex tasks at significant depths, controlled remotely from a surface vessel or platform.

WTI (Weapons Technical Intelligence): the collection, analysis, and dissemination of technical information related to weapons and explosive devices, including their components, manufacture, and use.

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